Appropriations bills, as their name implies, appropriate funds from the General Fund or special funds. Can these bills be adopted at any time during the Legislative Session?
This question is addressed in Article IV, Section 12(c)(4) of the California Constitution, which reads:
Until the budget bill has been enacted, the Legislature shall not send to the Governor for consideration any bill appropriating funds for expenditure during the fiscal year for which the budget bill is to be enacted, except emergency bills recommended by the Governor or appropriations for the salaries and expenses of the Legislature.
So, the short answer to the initial question is no, unless either the Governor recommends it or the bill appropriates monies for the salaries and expenses of the Legislature.
(a) Within the first 10 days of each calendar year, the Governor shall submit to the Legislature, with an explanatory message, a budget for the ensuing fiscal year containing itemized statements for recommended state expenditures and estimated state revenues. If recommended expenditures exceed estimated revenues, the Governor shall recommend the sources from which the additional revenues should be provided.
(b) The Governor and the Governor-elect may require a state agency, officer or employee to furnish whatever information is deemed necessary to prepare the budget.
(c) (1) The budget shall be accompanied by a budget bill itemizing recommended expenditures.