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(Photo: Michelle Gough)

Wildfire Season Is Almost Here!

Can One State’s Problem Be Another State’s Solution?

By William Simpson, April 30, 2024 6:30 am

Nevada has a problem. They have too many herbivores grazing the landscape.

In fact, according to the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the landscape and grazing in Nevada currently serves two-thirds of the entire U.S. population of 48,000 wild horses.

Between the cattle, wild horses, deer and elk, the competition for grazing and water resources in Nevada is tough, and results in economic conflict.

Livestock producers in Nevada have been effective at eliminating the predators that would normally take their calves and lambs and causing financial havoc. But that has the unintended side-effect of removing the evolved natural predators of the wild horses living in the same areas. So, without their natural predators, the horses overpopulate.

On the other hand, like Oregon, California has too many predators and a collapsed deer and elk herbivory. The deer population in California is estimated to be down by at least 1.5-million deer over the past 30-years, according to published data.

Because each deer now missing from the landscape was consuming about 1.2-tons of grass and brush annually, that population collapse results in nearly 2-million tons of unmanaged annual grass and brush waiting for the first source of ignition. And that massive annual fuel load is distributed across millions of acres in California.

Oregon has a similar problem to California where the collapsed herbivory has increased the frequency, size and intensity of wildfires.

More here ABC 12. 

This annual un-grazed crop of prodigious grass and brush fuels are largely responsible for California’s wildfire plague. In fact, over 60% of all wildfires involve grass and brush as the key fuels.

Adding pressure to the few remaining herbivores, California has protected the mountain lions and wolves that are among the thriving populations of bears, all of which are the evolved predators of deer and horses. The result is that these abundant apex predators are now short on prey and are turning to consuming livestock, people’s pets, and attacking humans.

Many California livestock producers are suffering significant losses due to depredation of livestock by apex predators, and have little or no recourse.

Can Nevada’s excess herbivore (horse) population serve several problems for California?

The answer seems clear.

By relocating wild horses from Nevada and into carefully selected wilderness forest areas in California, several costly issues can be addressed.

  1. Nevada can reduce herbivore pressures on their finite grazing and water resources; and
  2. Wild horses can cost-effectively reduce wildfire fuels in selected California wilderness areas unsuited for ruminant livestock grazing (aka: wildfire-grazing)
  3. The prey-predator balance is reestablished in California wilderness areas, thereby reducing predator attacks on livestock, pets and humans; and
  4. Taxpayers save hundreds of $-millions annually.

A deeper dive into the details:

A lot has changed in America since the 1971 Free Roaming Wild Horse and Burro Protection Act (‘ACT’) was signed into Law by President Richard Nixon.

The population in America has almost doubled from 207-million in 1971 to 340-million in 2023.

With the increase of 133-million more people in America, consumer demands for products related to livestock, mining, oil and gas industries and raw material coming from public land enterprises is at an all-time high and growing. And increased efficiencies in the supply-chain have accelerated the delivery of consumer products to end users.

Even with the rise in vegetarianism and veganism, today, 97% of Americans still regularly consume livestock derived products.

Americans depend upon food security and American livestock producers have long been the backbone of a significant portion of that food security.

American wild (aka: ‘feral’) horses are non-commercial herbivores that managed under the currently outdated 1971 Act. Wild horses are being commingled and managed with commercially valuable livestock and game animals that serve the American economy. Wild horses are competing with commercial livestock and game animals for grazing and water resources on certain public lands creating an economically fueled conflict, amounting to what might be characterized as the range-war of the 21st century.

The question arises:

Is there now, 50-years since the establishment of 1971 ACT, a better paradigm for managing wild horses in a manner that allows them to live naturally, wild and free, as intended by the 1971 ACT?

Is there a management paradigm that concurrently ends the economic conflict between wild horses and livestock production on public lands where livestock grazing has been long established and is appropriate?

The answer is yes.

The solution to the livestock-wild horse management dilemma comes in the form of solving the national disasters stemming from catastrophic wildfires costing tens of $-billions in losses annually and are devastating the forest ecosystems in the far western states of California, Oregon and Washington, among other areas.

The solution comes from a 10-year pilot research project (2014-2024) with 150-wild horses in the farthest reach of Northern California on the Oregon-California border.

In 2014, I started living-among and studying the Environmental Benefits of wild horses when they are located in appropriate wilderness areas, beyond conflicts with commercial enterprises such as gas, oil, mining and livestock production.

And from my research, a revolutionary pilot project and wild horse management Plan evolved and became known by its formal name; the ‘Natural Wildfire Abatement and Forest Protection Plan’, aka: ‘Wild Horse Fire Brigade’ (‘WHFB’). The Plan is focused on managing wildfire fuels in wilderness landscapes suffering from collapsed herbivory, and was tested-true by the deadly 38,000-acre Klamathon Fire in 2018.

The insurance industry credit-rating and analyst company AM BEST has produced a documentary that promotes the plan. That 8-minute documentary can be viewed online here.  

The reduced grass and brush fuels from Wild Horse Fire Brigade’s grazing model aided CALFIRE via large landscapes of reduced fuels making their suppression efforts more effective. Numerous peer-reviewed published studies also support the empirical, first-hand findings of my study. The abstract of the Study was published in 2019 at GrazeLIFE.

William E. Simpson II on July 7, 2018. (Photo: Laura Simpson)

Additionally, I served on the Klamathon Fire fire-line for 9-days as the technical advisor to CALFIRE commanders on the Camp Creek fire-line and observed and documented first-hand the benefits of the wild horse fire-grazing.

The wilderness area where my pilot program called “Wild Horse Fire Brigade” was proven is similar to millions of acres of other far western-state wilderness areas suffering from collapsed native herbivores. These particular wilderness areas are manifestly unsuited to livestock fire-grazing due to the presence of thriving populations of Apex predator populations of mountain lions, bears, wolves and coyotes. California’s Department of Fish and Wildlife has been trying to increase bear hunting due to the extreme populations of bears in the far north of California.

Due to the collapsed deer populations, wolves, mountain lions and bears have been taking livestock, pets and there have been attacks on humans. Recently, in March 2024, a 21-year old man in California was killed by a mountain lion as his 18-year old brother watched.

These Apex predators are the natural predators of wild horses, according to the latest science, and in wilderness areas where they thrive, they control populations of wild horses via Natural Selection. As my published Study suggests, the co-evolved predator-prey relationship between Apex predators and wild horses benefits the genetics of wild horses, and does so naturally as it has for the past 2-million years in North America. Published peer-reviewed science support the Study.

A Humane, Cost-Effective Nature-Based Solution for the Wild Horse – Livestock Conflict

Wild (aka: “feral”) horses can be humanely removed from areas of commercial conflicts as family-bands, and relocated (aka: “re-wilded”) humanely as family units into carefully selected appropriate remote wilderness areas to manage wildfire fuels. Areas that would benefit greatly from re-wilded horses are those wilderness lands and forests that have collapsed populations of native herbivores (deer, elk, etc.) and where livestock fire-grazing is manifestly unsuited due to livestock losses from existing Apex predator populations coupled-with remote difficult terrain that would incrementally add to the total cost-of-goods-sold due to burdensome logistics costs (fuel, trucking, etc.).

Where can wild horses be logically relocated?

There are 353-million acres of privately-owned forest lands in America. About 20-million acres of that landscape is remote wilderness with collapsed herbivories unsuitable for livestock fire-grazing and is at risk for catastrophic wildfire. There is also about 115-million acres of public-owned ‘designated-wildernesses. About 10-million acres of that landscape is also suffering from collapsed herbivories and is at risk of incineration by wildfires.

Is there law that supports the relocation of wild horses?

The short answer is yes. There is Law and policy that allows any government agency (state, county, city) to get horses from the Bureau of Land Management (‘BLM’) under HR 1625.

This law is cited on the BLM’s website, although they pretend it doesn’t exist, and intentionally mislead people into thinking there is no way to utilize my Plan via that Law.

A published white paper by two lawyers who serve on the board of the nonprofit Wild Horse Fire Brigade explains how wild horses that are in conflict with economic enterprises, such as gas, oil, mineral and livestock uses of public lands, can be relocated into appropriate wilderness areas outside of Nevada.

What is a Wild Horse Worth? 

Depends on where it’s located.

Based upon comparable cost metrics for various wildfire fuel mitigation methodologies, such as prescribed burning, My research suggests that each horse deployed into a wildfire fuels management role, via appropriate re-wilding, provides approximately $72,000.00 worth of fuels management value over its lifespan.

On the other-hand, a horse at a slaughter auction sells-for between $160 and $600.

The USFS spends approximately 90% of its nearly $9-billion budget on wildfire suppression). Other federal and state agencies are also spending $-billions annually chasing the wildfire issue. The annual resulting property and casualty losses are in the tens of $-billions, added to the loss of forests, timber, wildlife and habitat. In California alone the wildfires of 2017 caused losses estimated at $180-billion according to Courthouse news.

As we see, even a tiny reduction in the frequency, size and intensity of annual wildfires results in savings of hundreds of $-millions annually in direct costs for suppression as well as related to property and casualty losses, not to mention loss of wildlife and habitat.


The wild horse management plan known as “Wild Horse Fire Brigade” offers a humane, cost-effective, nature-based solution that provides meaningful benefits to all stakeholders, while cost-effectively accomplishing the intent of the 1971 ACT.

Wild Horse Fire Brigade Announces Historic Environmental Initiative on Earth Day – Plan to ReWild 1,000 Wild Horses

Wild Horse Fire Brigade (‘WHFB’) has received formal letters of endorsement from the Nevada Lands Council and Elko County Nevada Commissioners who voted unanimously to support Wild Horse Fire Brigade’s large-scale Rewilding project for up to 1,000 wild horses.

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10 thoughts on “Wildfire Season Is Almost Here!

  1. As true as the article is, I don’t think the current government in charge wants this type of resolution.
    They want money, equipment, and people thrown at it.
    If there isn’t a need for as much resources from the animals controlling the grasslands, the government bureaucracies won’t need the same large budget, and equipment, and people; and one can’t demand more money without showing their just cause, so it is in the bureaucracies interest to keep all solutions man-made to justify their budgets, wages, equipment, etc. And also the downstream graft, by sourcing from “select” vendors, etc., etc. We all know how it works.

  2. This is an interesting idea but replacing deer with horses would have some serious unintended consequences such as car collisions. With deer there is a lot of body damage but with a horse it could very well be fatal for the cars occupants. I live in the Sierra Nevada mountains and horses would not work out well. Too much snow and forest (deer can eat brush) and too many people. I don’t know what areas would work for horses but I would think the west side of the Sierras would not work out well at all. Perhaps the NE and east of the mountains in sparsely populated areas. As far as deer populations collapsing I have not noticed it personally. In the Sierras deer are literally everywhere and I suspect they are actually over populated. They are a scourge if you want to have any type of landscaping or a garden.

  3. With people now losing their fire insurance policies in California, it is time for some creative thinking such as what this article proposes. We cannot continue with business as usual. We can’t continue with the naysaying. We need to do something, and do it now.

    The biggest obstacle to this are the Democrats running this state. They lazy people, who don’t do anything to improve the lives of the average citizen. We need to get the Democrats out of the way, and make things happen before none of us can get or afford fire insurance.

    1. Agree 100% PF – California Insurance coverage is one of the most TROUBLING aspects of living in this beautiful hell-hole created by well-intentioned but ultimately STUPID Democrats like Rob Bonta and Gavin Newsom…and a host of many others…

  4. Bill,
    you state Elko Co voted to support large scale 1000 wild horses for fire protection… is that a firm”go forward”? It’s definitely worth the exploration to realize impact of your concept as a trial. ( and accepted as good practice?!). Exactly where in Elko are proposed horses to be placed? Will they be fenced? AND if a fire did come about w horses on the property— how do you propose safety of the equines?
    I don’t think it about Republicans or Democrats- it’s about fire suppression, safety and working w insurance companies— and maybe, just maybe it could be a simple solution! The Wild Horses. They have saved our ass throughout history! It’s worth a trial.

  5. Bill
    Elko County voted in favor of 1000 wild horse re wilding for fire suppression….
    Exactly where in Elko are proposed horses to be placed? Will they be fenced? AND if a fire did come about w horses on the property— how do you propose safety of the equines?
    I don’t think it about Republicans or Democrats- it’s about fire suppression, safety and working w insurance companies— and maybe, just maybe it could be a simple solution! The Wild Horses. They have saved our ass throughout history! It’s worth a trial.

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